Sinap apples have been valued since ancient times for their incredible taste, somewhat like honey. In addition, they have a long shelf life and are able to stay all winter. Therefore, they are considered an ideal option for fresh harvesting for the winter.
If you still have not planted this variety in your garden or summer cottage, then you should think about planting it next year in the spring. Moreover, the Sinap apple tree has been cultivated for more than a hundred years in many regions of Russia. It is worth talking about its properties, cultivation features, care in more detail.
Description of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky
Sinap is of two types - North and Orlovsky.
The northern variety was bred by S. I. Isaev at the biological station of young naturalists named after K. A. Timiryazev. It was obtained by pollination from the seeds of the Kandil-Kitayka variety in 1927.
The Oryol variety is derived from the Severny variety, therefore it has the same taste and a high yield.... This variety was obtained in 1955 at the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops and the All-Union Research Institute of Horticulture. V. Michurin by crossing the Northern Sinap and the Pamyati Michurin variety.
Ripening period and yield
Severny and Oryol Sinap has a high yield. On average, up to 200 kilograms of apples are obtained from one tree. Ripe fruits begin to be harvested from the beginning of the first decade of October. The first harvest period may vary depending on the climate and weather of the region in which the variety grows.
The full-fledged fruiting period for trees does not come too early. The first apples appear only in the fourth year of apple growing.
If you additionally use additional dwarf rootstocks, this will increase the period of onset of yield.
Over time, apple trees of this variety quickly increase their yield levels. Every year the number of ripe apples increases, if in the first year 100 kg are harvested, then the next year this figure will double... However, abundant fruiting can negatively affect the size of apples.
Description of apples
The Sinap Orlovsky apple variety has the following qualities:
- The size of ripe fruits is average, weight is 150 grams;
- Ripe fruits, ready to be picked from the tree, have a yellow-green tint... And after storage, the fruits become golden yellow;
- If the tree is on the sunny side, then a dull pale pink blush with blur appears on ripe apples;
- The rind has a dense structure;
- Ripe apples are oily and smooth to the touch.
The North Sinap apple variety has the following characteristics:
- Ripe fruits have different shapes, the weight of one fruit is 120 grams;
- The surface of the peel is smooth, there is oiliness;
- The color of ripe apples is yellow-green, sometimes a dark red blush is present;
- The pulp has a juicy, loose structure;
- The pulp has excellent taste, due to the harmonious combination of acid and sweetness, juiciness and tenderness.
Full ripening of fruits occurs one month after harvest. In the process of lying, they acquire sweetness, juiciness and softness.
Ripe fruits contain a reduced percentage of sugar. The total sugar content is 9.5%. After a final ripening period during maturation, the level of the sugar-acid ratio is balanced. During this period, apples have a rich taste with a slight sour taste. The calorie content of 100 grams of apples does not exceed 50 kilocalories.
Ripe apples of Sinapa Severny and Orlovsky have high useful properties. They contain a high level of vitamins and minerals. During storage, they do not lose their useful properties.
The Sinap apple tree is a partially self-fertile tree. Many gardeners advise growing pollinators nearby to improve yield levels. For North Sinap, Antonovka, Pepin saffron, Slavyanka are considered suitable options.
If no pollinators grow on the site, North Sinapa's yield levels may decline. Without pollinators, the harvest will drop by up to 40%.
For Sinap Orlovsky, Antonovka and Welsey are suitable.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Sinap Severny and Orlovsky apples are grown in many regions of Russia. This is due to the positive properties of this variety. It is worth highlighting the most popular advantages of Sinapa Severny and Orlovsky:
- This variety of apples has early maturity;
- High productivity. From one tree at the age of 5 years, you can collect 4-5 bags of apples, this is 200 kilograms;
- Ripe fruits must be stored... When lying down, they rarely deteriorate, do not become moldy and retain a high level of nutrients;
- Withstand severe frosts. Sinap Orlovsky is able to withstand frosts down to -7.8 degrees. When the temperature drops to minus, ripe fruits do not freeze, they retain all their external and internal qualities;
- Can grow in regions of Russia with a harsh climate;
- Ripe apples have excellent taste. After harvesting, from the beginning of October to the end of November, the apples are left to lie down, preferably for a month. After that, the fruits ripen, acquire an excellent taste, become juicy and healthy.
However, in addition to positive qualities, Sinap also has negative ones, of which it is worth highlighting the main ones:
- After planting seedlings, fruiting of the tree occurs only at the 4th year of life;
- Without pollinators, yields will drop to 40%;
- Sinap Severny, unlike Orlovsky, has low frost resistance, so it is not recommended to plant it in the northern regions of Russia;
- Low resistance to scab, pests and diseases. Therefore, periodically in early spring, appropriate treatments are carried out;
- The tree has large dimensions, therefore it is inconvenient when growing in small areas.
Regions of natural growth
In Russia, suitable areas for growing Sinap Severny are the following:
- Central Black Earth;
- On stanza forms in the Eastern Siberia region.
The Sinapa Orlovsky variety is suitable for planting in areas:
- Central Black Earth;
- Northwest region of Russia.
In addition, this variety is actively cultivated in six regions of Belarus.
Trees of the Severny and Orlovsky Sinap varieties have the same characteristics:
- Strong stature and large size;
- The shape of the crown is pyramidal with spreading branches. For this reason, before planting, you need to allocate the necessary growing space for the seedlings. In the future, this will ensure full-fledged growth due to the receipt of all the necessary components;
- The size of the height of an adult tree is from 3 to 5 meters;
- The shoots are dark brown in color, their thickness is average. They are lowered down. The form is cranked. Leaves are sparse;
- The shade of the leaves is green or dark green. Size - medium, in shape they are wide, slightly elongated, lowered down. The edges of the leaf blade are raised up;
- The main branches from the trunk branch off in a perpendicular direction, the ends have an upward direction.
Despite the fact that the tree is large, the main branches are rarely located, so the crown of the tree is not very dense. This property further facilitates maintenance, pruning and harvesting.
Planting rules for seedlings
A suitable time for planting apple seedlings of the Sinap Severny and Orlovsky varieties is the period from mid-September to mid-October.
Seedlings can be planted in spring. If the apple tree is planted in spring, then planting should start from the first half of April. In spring it is worth planting when the threat of frost has completely passed, otherwise the seedlings may not take root.
During planting, it is worth considering the future large size of the trees, so when planting seedlings, leave a distance of 5-7 cm between them.
Main landing features:
- Pits for seedlings must be made 14 days in advance for planting;
- The depth of the holes must be at least 80 cm, and the length and width of each hole must be at least 1 meter;
- The bottom of the hole should be loosened with a rake;
- Then you need to break a brick or expanded clay to small fragments and lay it on the bottom of the pit. This will provide additional drainage;
- Fertile soil in the hole is mixed with rotted manure and wood ash. ¾ of land will require ¼ of a fertilizer mixture;
- Then add 40 grams of potassium sulfate and 80 grams of superphosphate to the finished mixture from the earth and fertilizer mixture. Everything is thoroughly mixed;
- After that, this mixture must be poured into the planting hole. Fertilizer should fill the hole by almost 1/3 part;
- After filling in the fertilizer, you need to add a little earth to the central part so that a slide 20 cm high is formed;
Before planting a seedling in the hole, it is necessary to examine its roots. It is advisable to remove all dry and damaged roots. It is placed in water for 4-5 hours so that the roots are saturated with moisture. This will accelerate the growth and survival of the tree.
- After that, the seedling is placed in the hole. In this case, the distance of the root collar to the ground should be at least 5-6 cm;
- We drive in a peg near the sapling, the size of its height should be 60-80 cm. The sapling is tied to this peg;
- The roots are neatly straightened out, they should not be tangled. Then they are sprinkled with earth, compacted, but not strongly;
- Then the seedling is filled with water. One young tree will require up to 3-4 buckets of water.
It is advisable to plant young planting material of Sinap Severny and Orlovsky apple trees on loamy, sandy loam soils with high air and moisture permeability... The main indicator is the remoteness of the planting from the flow of groundwater by at least 2 meters, because apple trees cannot stand long stagnation of water.
The land used for planting apple trees must have the required calcium content. Lack of calcium can negatively affect the taste of ripe fruits.
Despite the fact that Sinap Severny and Orlovsky are considered unpretentious varieties of apple trees, they still require additional care. If proper and timely care is taken, the result can be a good harvest.
During the intensive growth of apple trees, it is necessary to do periodic pruning of young trees.
Features of tree pruning:
- In the first year after planting seedlings, only a third of the branches should be pruned;
- A year later, in the spring, pruning is performed so that after it there are three tiers of branches;
- In subsequent periods, the trimming procedure is performed so that in the end only one main conductor remains.
Pruning of young trees is done by 20-25 cm, adults by 45-50 cm. During pruning, dry and damaged branches must be removed.
In order for the tree to constantly bear fruit and give a good harvest, it is necessary to water it correctly:
- During the spring and summer period, trees are watered at least 4-5 times a month;
- For one young tree, it is required to pour up to 2-3 buckets of water;
- After each irrigation procedure, it is necessary to loosen the soil. This is to ensure the full distribution of moisture;
- Before watering, be sure to make a near-stem circle, due to this, the water will be better absorbed.
Features of feeding
The Sinap Severny and Orlovsky varieties are fertilized 4 times a year:
- After the winter period;
- After kidney formation;
- After flowering;
- After full harvest.
How to fertilize apple trees correctly:
- The first fertilization is done the following spring after planting the seedling. During this period, a fertilizer mixture is introduced into the soil - 700 grams of manure is added to 1 bucket of earth;
- As the first buds appear, 500 grams of urea should be scattered into the trunk circle of each tree, then the hole is dug up;
- After the flowering period ends, the trees need to be fertilized with a special solution. The fertile solution contains 100 grams of superphosphate, 60 grams of urea, 40 grams of calcium. All these components are diluted in 10 liters of water. You can fertilize with another equally fertile mixture - a kilogram of liquid mullein, 500 grams of bird droppings, 40-50 grams of superphosphate are added to 10 liters of water;
- As the crop is harvested, fertilizer is applied to the soil. For 10 liters of water, 30-50 grams of superphosphate is added.
Diseases and pests
Sinap Severny and Orlovsky often have scab and powdery mildew. Trees show moderate resistance to these lesions. Therefore, it is imperative to provide complete protection against these lesions.
Rules for the protection and prevention of scab and powdery mildew diseases:
- Work to prevent injuries and diseases in apple trees is carried out in the autumn;
- Mandatory control of the condition of the branches and the integrity of the bark of the trunk;
- Cutting off dead branches and damaged parts;
- The pruning sites in young trees are sealed with chalk, in adults - with lime mortar;
- After the apples are completely harvested, the crowns are sprayed with a 3-5% solution of copper sulfate;
- In the period of early spring, before the buds begin to bloom, sprays are made from a solution of Fitosporin M or 1% Bordeaux liquid.
With a lack of calcium in the soil, Sinap apples are affected by bitter pits. To saturate the earth during pouring and ripening of fruits, it is recommended to use the drug in liquid form - Kalbit C... For 10 liters of water, add 6-8 ml of the drug. Spraying is carried out in the evening. Spray from the top, gradually dropping to the bottom.
To combat the moth, a solution of wormwood is used. To do this, a tincture is made from wormwood, then 25 ml of tincture is added to 10 liters of water and trees are sprayed with this solution. Spraying begins 4-5 weeks before harvest. Spraying is carried out 2 times at intervals of 7 days.
The Sinap apple variety is winter versionwhich has good yields. It can be planted in regions with harsh climates because the trees are highly frost-resistant.
Of course, in order to get a good harvest, you must follow the rules of planting, care and further cultivation. Do not forget to feed and spray the trees during the time, this will protect against damage by diseases and pests.
Description of the apple-tree variety "Sinap Orlovsky": characteristics, photos, reviews
Sinap Orlovsky is an old proven variety of apple trees, which has been valued from time immemorial and is currently appreciated both by experienced gardeners and gardeners, and by beginners.
This type of culture fell in love with its numerous advantages - unpretentiousness to climatic conditions, ease of growing and care, early onset of fruiting, storage duration of fruits, their excellent taste and beautiful appearance.
Apples of this variety are grown not only in private farmsteads, but also in farms for sale.
Photo of an apple tree Sinap Orlovsky:
- Description of the variety and its characteristics
- Description of the tree
- Description of fruits
- Ripening and harvesting terms
- Storage times and transportability
- Climate and regions of cultivation
- Diseases and pests
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Reviews of gardeners about the variety of apple trees Sinap Orlovsky
- Anna, 50 years old
- Alexey, 59 years old
Planting and leaving
As with most varieties of apple trees, gardeners distinguish 2 periods for planting: spring and autumn.Many seedlings take root well when planting in the spring, but Senap Orlovsky is best planted in the autumn. The best time is the end of September - the beginning of October.
It is important to be in time before the onset of cold weather, so that the young tree has time to take root.
When choosing a place, it is worth remembering that the tree grows quickly, so in a couple of years, the seedling will already turn into a real tree, which will require a lot of space. When planting several trees, it is necessary to leave at least 3 meters from other seedlings, does not tolerate close proximity to other tall trees. The apple tree prefers to grow in sunny places, but it also takes root well in a small shade. Not afraid of strong gusts of wind, unlike other varieties of apple trees.
To get a harvest in 2-3 years after planting, you need to choose the right planting material. It is better to choose a young seedling one or two years old, which has already formed a root system, the tree has 2-3 strong branches, leaves of light green tones. A healthy seedling has a natural gray-brown trunk color. There are no dry and diseased shoots in the roots of the tree.
When planting a tree, not only the place, and the seedling itself, but also the planting pit are selected in advance. She prepares a few weeks before landing. Its depth and width depends on the size of the root system; it is not necessary to dig more than 1.5x1.5. Any soil is suitable for planting a tree, the Senap Orlovsky variety is not picky about the land, it takes root well on almost any land. But for accelerated growth and higher yields, it is better to select loamy soils.
Fertile soils are also well suited, light, which quickly pass oxygen and water to the roots. Sandy fertile soils are also suitable, and it is better to refrain from planting from places where underwater waters are too close.
The earth pulled out of the hole is useful for filling the roots of the tree, so it must be mixed with peat or humus. It should not contain large lumps, stones or roots of other plants, it is good if it is soft and crumbly. Next, the earth inside the pit is prepared, small stones are well laid out on the bottom, ordinary gravel will do, this will serve as a drainage place.
Humus is also laid on the bottom, a layer of dry leaves and grass, manure and sawdust can be used. This mixture is evenly mixed with loose earth. Next, several buckets of water are poured into the pit, after which you need to wait a couple of hours for the earth to settle. A young seedling is installed in the pit strictly vertically, the entire root system must be straightened.
In order for the tree to form an even trunk in the future and not tilt to the side, a stake, about a meter long, is installed in the pit, and the tree is tied to it. The root system is covered with earth, periodically compacted. Further, a small barrier is formed near the trunk, like a flower bed, no more than 10 cm high. After planting, the tree needs careful watering with 15-20 liters of water. It is important to water the apple tree weekly in the first month of growth, and in order for the earth to retain moisture, the trunk circle must be mulched.
A young tree needs watering, because a weak root system is not able to independently extract moisture from the soil. Apple trees especially need water in the spring, before flowering; in the spring, you can even lightly fill the tree.
During the summer period, in the first year after planting the apple tree, 10-15 liters of water per week will be enough. An adult tree is capable of extracting moisture on its own, but in hot summer, it is still worth watering the tree at least once a week.
When planting in fertile soil, additional feeding of the apple tree is not required, because the tree takes root quickly in any soil. If the soil is poor and infertile, then manure, humus, peat, ash or sawdust are suitable as fertilizers. You can also use mineral, potash or phosphorus fertilizers. But you should not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizing, from this the tree only gives shoots, on which fruits are not formed.
It is especially important to prune the apple tree in the first 2-3 years, while the young tree is just forming its branches. Pruning can be done in both spring and fall. In the first year, young shoots that have grown during the summer are removed. Next, broken, frozen and diseased branches are cut out. It is also better to remove the shoots that block the light of the branches on which the first crop was. Sanitary pruning helps the tree to form its branches correctly, as well as increase the amount of harvest for the next year.
The Senap Orlovsky apple variety is frost-resistant, an adult tree is able to withstand even the most severe winters with strong winds, the weather will not affect the amount of harvest next year. But it is still better to cover a young tree, especially in the first year after planting. To do this, you can use dry grass, overlay it with a tree trunk circle. You can also wrap a tree trunk with a covering material, but in the spring it must be removed as early as possible, otherwise the tree will not receive oxygen and the trunk will begin to rot.
For apple trees to produce a high-quality and regular harvest, it is important to provide care, which includes pruning, watering, fertilizing, and treating pests and diseases. Then your apple orchard will delight you with tasty and healthy fruits for many years.
The most favorable time for planting seedlings of Orlovsky and North Sinapa is considered to be the period from mid-September to mid-October. Planting in spring is also possible. In this case, it is carried out in the first ten days of April, after the threat of return frosts has completely passed.
Since the trees grow large, the distance between them should be 5–7 m.
The depth of each planting pit must be at least 80 cm, and the length and width must be at least 1 m. Pits should be prepared 2 weeks before planting. Broken brick or expanded clay is laid on the previously loosened bottom to ensure good drainage for the tree. Fertile soil from the pit is mixed with rotted manure and wood ash at the rate of ¼ fertilizer per ¾ land. 40 g of potassium sulfate and 80 g of superphosphate are added to this mixture. The pit is covered by a third with the resulting mixture, after which more soil is added to the center until a slide 20 cm high is formed.
Before planting a seedling in the ground, you should carefully examine the roots, remove dry or damaged ones, and then place them in water for 4–5 hours to saturate them with moisture.
The seedling is placed in the hole so that the distance of the root collar to the ground is 5–6 cm. A peg 60–80 cm high is driven in next to it, to which a young tree must be tied. The roots should be carefully straightened, covered with soil and slightly trampled down. For watering, each seedling requires 3-4 buckets of water when planting.
The seedling is tied to a stake in one or two places
For planting seedlings, loamy or sandy loam soil with good air and moisture permeability is suitable. An important indicator will be the remoteness of planting from the flow of groundwater by at least 2 m, since apple trees do not tolerate stagnant water.
The soil for planting the Oryol Sinap must also contain a sufficient level of calcium in its composition, otherwise, in the future, its lack will adversely affect the taste of the fruit.
Sinap Orlovsky and Sinap Severny are unpretentious, but they require some attention. With proper care, the health of trees and fruits is maintained and the quantity and quality of each crop is increased.
The intensive growth of these apple trees requires periodic pruning of the branches. In the first year after planting, the branches of a young tree for a third part must be pruned. The next year, in the spring, the tree is pruned so that there are three tiers of branches left. The trees are then pruned so that only one main conductor remains.
The branches of young trees are cut 20-25 cm, adults - 45-50 cm. Dry and damaged branches should also be removed.
By pruning, the trees bear fruit regularly and the size of the fruit increases.
Video: how to properly cut apple trees
In the spring and summer, apple trees need watering about 4-5 times a month. One young tree needs 2-3 buckets of water. After each watering or rain, the soil should be loosened to provide moisture to the root system.
Watering is especially important when budding and fruiting.
Watering is carried out in the tree trunk circle, and then the soil is loosened
Both apple varieties should be fertilized four times a year:
- after wintering
- after kidney formation
- after flowering
- after harvest.
The first fertilization with rotted manure (500-700 g per 1 tree) is applied next spring after planting the seedling.
After the formation of buds, 500 g of urea is poured into the trunk circle of each tree and a hole is dug up.
After the end of flowering, the trees are fertilized with a solution of 100 g of superphosphate, 60 g of urea and 40 g of calcium chloride per 10 liters of water. A valuable fertilizer is a mixture of 1 kg of liquid mullein or 0.5 kg of bird droppings per 10 liters of water with the addition of 40-50 g of superphosphate.
After harvesting, add superphosphate (30-50 g per 10 l of water).
Root top dressing should be applied to the tree trunk circle
Description of fruits
The fruits of this apple tree are oblong, have a round-conical shape and noticeable ribs. The rind is dense and shiny, smooth and slightly oily to the touch. The main color for harvesting is yellow-green, and if the apple is allowed to ripen, it will turn golden. Apples may have a reddish blush, which is slightly pronounced and mainly from the sunny side. The average fruit weight is 150 grams, but it can be more or less. The seeds are small, brown.
The pulp is incredibly juicy, has a green-creamy color. The taste is sour with sweet notes, not harsh and harmonious. It is worth noting that the harvest becomes best in taste only after storage, it is best to take a sample in November. If you taste an apple freshly removed from the tree, it will most likely taste unpalatable.
The amount of sugars in the fruit is about 9.5%, titrated acids - 0.5%, ascorbic acid 13.7 mg per 100 g, pectins - 8.9%.
With the right organization of the conditions in the storage room, the crop can be saved until May.
Varieties of varieties
There are several varieties of the cultivar. This variety is possible only because people love this variety very much and constantly want to improve it in order to make it possible to grow in cold northern regions or in compact form.
The apple tree synap Orlovsky on a dwarf rootstock is grown where there is a high level of groundwater. The roots of dwarfs do not go deep into the depths; therefore, it is very easy to grow them.
Semi-dwarfs are considered the most common rootstocks for growing the Sinap Orlovsky variety and the most practical. With this method of cultivation, the growth of an apple tree reaches 5 meters. The roots are not very deep, but they are sufficient for resistance to low temperatures.
On a vigorous rootstock
Apple trees on a vigorous rootstock are stronger, more hardy and resilient. They live quite a long time, about half a century. Large Sinap trees are not so practical to care for, they need additional pruning.
On a clone rootstock
These species, grown on viable clonal rootstocks, can be enormous. Their growth often reaches 8 meters and the volume of the crown is not less. With this method of cultivation, trees grow absolutely unpretentious, do not get sick and bear fruit in any conditions. But the marketable and taste qualities of the fruit are getting lower.
Features of agricultural technology
The Sinap Orlovsky apple variety is self-fertile. For the plant to bear fruit, you need to plant pollinating trees nearby.
The best pollinators for this apple variety are Northern Sinap, Slavyanka, Antonovka ordinary, Pepin saffron, Zhigulevskoe, Welsey.
Like all fruit trees, the Sinap Orlovsky apple tree loves the sun and the soil rich in nutrients. When choosing a place for planting a seedling, it is recommended to avoid wetlands and high groundwater levels. Apple tree care includes watering, loosening and mulching the soil, applying mineral and organic fertilizers, forming the crown and preventing various diseases.